Semen Analysis

In the realm of assisted reproductive technologies (ART), one essential component often overlooked is semen analysis. While much attention is placed on the female partner’s fertility, the male’s contribution is equally vital. Semen analysis plays a crucial role in in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments, as it provides valuable insights into male reproductive health. In this article, we will delve into the importance of semen analysis in IVF and its role in achieving successful outcomes.

The Semen Analysis Process

Semen analysis is a diagnostic test that evaluates various parameters related to sperm health and quality. These parameters include sperm count (concentration), motility (movement), morphology (shape), volume, and more. The process typically involves the following steps:

  1. Collection: The male partner provides a semen sample through masturbation, usually at the clinic or at home. It is essential to follow specific guidelines provided by the healthcare provider to ensure accurate results.
  2. Lab Processing: The collected semen sample is sent to a laboratory for analysis. A trained embryologist examines the sample to assess its various parameters.
  3. Evaluation: The semen analysis results are then interpreted and reported. The findings are compared to established reference values to determine sperm quality and fertility potential.

Importance of Semen Analysis in IVF

  1. Identifying Male Factor Infertility: Semen analysis is a fundamental tool for diagnosing male factor infertility, which contributes to fertility issues in approximately 40% of infertility cases. By assessing sperm parameters, healthcare providers can determine if male infertility is a factor in the couple’s struggle to conceive.
  2. Tailored Treatment Plans: Based on the semen analysis results, IVF specialists can create individualized treatment plans. For example, if low sperm count or motility is identified, the healthcare team may recommend intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) to directly inject a single sperm into an egg during IVF.
  3. Treatment Monitoring: Semen analysis is not a one-time test. Throughout the IVF process, repeat analyses may be conducted to monitor sperm quality and adjust treatment strategies accordingly.
  4. Improving IVF Success Rates: Accurate semen analysis helps maximize IVF success rates. Knowing the sperm quality and quantity allows IVF professionals to optimize fertilization and embryo development, leading to a higher chance of achieving a healthy pregnancy.
  5. Ensuring Healthy Embryos: High-quality sperm is essential for creating robust embryos, which, in turn, improves the likelihood of implantation and a successful pregnancy.

What Semen Analysis Measures

  1. Sperm Count (Concentration): Sperm count refers to the number of sperm present in one milliliter of semen. A healthy sperm count is typically around 15 million sperm per milliliter or higher. Low sperm count may indicate male infertility issues.
  2. Sperm Motility: Sperm motility assesses the ability of sperm to move effectively. Healthy sperm should exhibit progressive forward movement. Reduced motility can hinder the sperm’s ability to reach and fertilize the egg.
  3. Sperm Morphology: Sperm morphology evaluates the size and shape of sperm. Abnormalities in sperm morphology can impact fertility, as misshapen sperm may struggle to penetrate the egg’s protective barrier.
  4. Semen Volume: Semen volume measures the amount of fluid ejaculated. Low semen volume could indicate an issue with the seminal vesicles or ejaculatory ducts, affecting the transport of sperm.

Understanding Sperm Motility Grades: Evaluating Male Fertility

Sperm motility grades are used to assess the movement and quality of sperm in a semen sample. Sperm motility is a crucial factor in male fertility because it determines the sperm’s ability to swim toward the egg for fertilization. The grading system provides a standardized way to describe the quality of sperm movement, and it typically consists of several categories or grades. The specific grading system may vary between laboratories and healthcare providers, but a common grading system includes the following categories:

  1. Grade A (Progressively Motile): These are the most desirable sperm. Grade A sperm have rapid, forward movement. They swim in a straight line or large circles and are capable of reaching and fertilizing the egg. A high percentage of Grade A sperm in a sample is a positive indicator of fertility.
  2. Grade B (Non-Progressively Motile): Grade B sperm also show movement but lack the speed and direction of Grade A sperm. They may move in small circles or have slower, more erratic movement. While not as ideal as Grade A sperm, Grade B sperm can still fertilize an egg if there are enough of them.
  3. Grade C (Non-Motile): Grade C sperm are non-motile, meaning they do not move at all. These sperm are considered immotile and have the lowest fertility potential. An excess of Grade C sperm in a semen sample can indicate fertility issues.
  4. Grade D (Dead): These sperm are completely immotile and have no signs of life. Grade D sperm have no potential for fertilization and may be the result of various factors, such as infections, exposure to toxins, or underlying medical conditions.

Semen analysis reports often provide the percentages of each motility grade, allowing healthcare providers to assess the overall quality of the sperm in the sample. Ideal semen samples should have a significant proportion of Grade A and Grade B sperm, as they are the most likely to successfully fertilize an egg.

Deciphering Semen Analysis Results: What Do They Mean?

Understanding the results of a semen analysis is pivotal when assessing male fertility. Various terms are used to describe the outcomes of these tests, each carrying a distinct meaning. Here, we’ll break down these terminologies to help you comprehend what your results signify:

  1. Normospermia: This indicates a healthy sperm sample with a normal number, movement, and shape of sperm.
  2. Aspermia: It signifies a complete absence of semen in the ejaculate.
  3. Azoospermia: This is a condition where no sperm is present in the ejaculate.
  4. Oligospermia: It suggests a low sperm count, indicating a lower-than-normal number of sperm in the sample.
  5. Severe Oligospermia: This is characterized by an extremely low sperm count, falling between 0 and 5 million sperm per milliliter (mL).
  6. Asthenozoospermia: It signifies reduced sperm motility or the ability of sperm to move effectively in the sample.
  7. Teratozoospermia: This term describes an increased concentration of abnormal sperm in a sperm sample.
  8. Polyspermy: This occurs when the egg has been fertilized by more than one sperm nucleus.
  9. Hypothermia: In this condition, a man produces a sperm sample with an ejaculate volume of less than 1.5 mL.
  10. Oligoastenozoospermia: It indicates a combination of abnormal sperm shape, low sperm count, and poor sperm movement.
  11. Oligoteratozoospermia: This condition refers to having both low sperm motility and reduced sperm normality.
  12. Oligoasthenoteratospermia (OAT): OAT is a combination of three different disorders – poor sperm motility, abnormal sperm morphology, and a low sperm count.
  13. Hematospermia: It points to the presence of blood in the ejaculate.
  14. Necrospermia (or necrozoospermia): This term describes a condition with a high percentage of immotile sperm in the ejaculated semen.

Among these results, azoospermia, or the complete absence of sperm, is a condition that is encountered quite often. There can be various reasons for azoospermia, but one effective technique to address this issue is micro testicular sperm extraction (micro TESE). This procedure involves urologists and embryologists working together, analyzing the layers of the testicles under local anesthesia to locate sperm. Success in this procedure heavily relies on the experience and cooperation of the medical team.

IVF Turkey is a leading center for micro TESE procedures, having performed hundreds of them with a success rate of around 60%. As such, it’s recommended to explore this technique before considering other methods for achieving your goal of parenthood.

We understand that providing a semen sample can be uncomfortable for many men. Hence, we collaborate with highly professional clinics and laboratories in London and Birmingham, offering an option for semen analysis. These are Doctors Laboratory in London and Cherish-UK in London.

If you choose to come to Istanbul for your fertility treatment, rest assured that the IVF Turkey team will make the process as stress-free as possible. Male fertility issues are common and just as significant as female factors during the fertility journey. At IVF Turkey, we design personalized treatments to provide the best options for each individual.

Please do not hesitate to contact us if you have any additional questions.